The optimum temperature for efficient conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel was identified to be about 51°C-55°C. The heating system required for this purpose was required to maintain a constant temperature in the above mentioned range. The heating system was designed to be a closed loop feedback system which could maintain a required temperature so that the reaction conditions can be maintained as needed. A thermostat control is used to maintain constant temperature.

The system was designed with an electric heating coil, a temperature controller and a sensor. The ideal location for the sensor was identified to be on the flange of the closed reactor. This would allow for the measurement of temperature near the liquid surface so that temperature gradient does not affect the temperature reading. The heating coil is placed ideally to provide uniform heating.

The heating coil is connected to the temperature controller through a relay. The temperature sensor provides feed back to the controller and allows a present temperature to be maintained.


The properties of methyl esters produced were measured using respective standard techniques. It was found that the properties of the methyl esters satisfy Indian standards (IS 15607:2005) for Biodiesels. The Properties of oil ,methyl esters, diesel and Indian Standards for biodiesel are listed in T able .1 & 2

The photographs of neat oil and the corresponding methyl esters (biodiesel) are shown in Figures.7 & 8

Table 1. Properties of oil before esterification

Property Karanja oil
Density (Kg/m2) 991
Kinematic viscosity c.stokes 69.6
Flash point(0c) 241
Fire point (0c) 253
Heating Value KJ/Kg 34000
Specific gravity 0.912

Table 2. Properties of oil After esterification

Property Karanja Methyl Esters Diesel IS for Biodiesel
Density (Kg/m2) 885 836 860-900
Kinematic viscosity c.stokes 5.60 3.8 2.5-6
Flash point(0c) 217 56 120
Fire point (0c) 223 63 130
Heating Value KJ/Kg 36120 42800 37270
Specific gravity 0.876 0.85 0.86-0.90

Fig7Preparation Of Biodiesel_decrypted
Fig: 7 Karanja oil
Fig:8 Biodiesel from karanja oil

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

Calculate APR