This is a cross sectional study which attempts to examine the relationships of independent and dependent variables by applying self-administered survey questionnaire. This study is based on literature review and conceptual framework and developed hypotheses to examine the relations between independent and dependent variables. The procedure adopted for this research follows a quantitative approach for data collection and analysis. According to Gilbert (2001, p-19), the positivism paradigm uses deduction, beginning with hypotheses.


Participants were full time academics from institutions of Gujarat. A sample of 100 faculty members were selected randomly from various levels of academic i.e. professors, associate professors, assistant professors, and lecturers.


The survey instrument was administered to the participants via a mix of email, post and personal visits. Before sending out the questionnaire, participants were contacted to ascertain their willingness to take part in the study. After gaining an affirmative response, each participant was sent a survey questionnaire, a formal consent form and a covering letter mentioning the purpose of the study and instructions on how to complete the survey instrument. In case of no response from a participant after two weeks of sending them the survey pack, three reminders were issued requesting them to return the completed survey questionnaire. Those who did not respond despite three reminders were dropped from the study and regarded as non responders. The participant were administered a survey instrument in English language.

Measurement Scales

Survey questionnaire has been developed on the basis of what kind of information needed. In this study, independent variable such as supervisor and peer relations and demographic characteristics and dependent variable i.e. readiness for organisational change were used to examine the employee attitudes and behaviours. These variables have been carried out with many options of Likert Scales for the variety of choice of individuals.

Supervisor and Peer Relations

Six items with a five-point Likert scale (1= Strongly Disagree and 5= Strongly Agree) concerning employee perception of supervisors’ support and advice on employee career reported by Gaertner and Nollen were used for this factor.

Readiness for organisational change

Fourteen items applied by Madsen et al. based on Hanpachern’s original Scale (with slightly alterations), which is based on McNabb and Sepic. Participants were asked to tick one of seven numbers on a Likert Scale (1 = Very Unlikely and 7 = Very likely).


Demographics included gender, age range, marital status, present employment status, and highest educational level, number of dependent, years on their present job and years with present employer.

Data Analysis

Analytical techniques were used to analyse the results of descriptive statistics to describe the demographic and general results. Although Pearson correlations of dependent variable i.e. readiness for organisational change to independent variable i.e. supervisor and peer relation and demographic were used to test the magnitude and direction of relationships of variables. To predict the output of variables multiple regression tests is robust in social science and psychological domain. It is an appropriate and most widely used method for investigating the relationship between a dependent variable and two or more independent variables due to its well developed underlying statistical theory (Hair et al., 2005, p-18; Montgomery et al, 2001, p-xii). The hypotheses were tested using the Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA). Finally, multi analysis of variances (MANOVA) applied to find the relationships between change readiness and demographic characteristics.

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

Calculate APR