ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS OF EMPLOYEES TOWARDS ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE: LITERATURE REVIEW(1)

LITERATURE REVIEW(1)

Change is concerned to solve the problems and challenges of the organisation. It might be small or large but affects employee attitudes and behaviours because of shifting from one stage to another. This particular situation can develop uncertainty, strain and anxiety among employees. A review of the literature undertaken by these researchers has revealed that an individual’s attitudes and behaviours towards organisational change are influenced by employee readiness factors (Hanpachern et al., 1998; Eby et al., 2000; Miller et al, 2006; Holt et al., 2007; Cinite et al., 2009).

In literature change has been defined break down existing structures and create new one (Chonko, 2004). It is transformation of an organisation between two points in time (Barnett and Carroll, 1995). Such situation can develop uncertainty, anxiety and ambiguity because of differences in individual life experiences, motivational levels, socio demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and behavioural patterns. To overcome the employees’ nervousness management and change agents focused extensively on employee readiness predictor variables (Bernerth, 2004; Cinite et al., 2009). According to the literature employee readiness factors have a significant impact in preparing them mentally and physically for immediate action (Madsen, 2003). Readiness is defined as an employee’s beliefs, thoughts, and behaviours to accept the needs and capability of an organisation. It is known as a cognitive precursor to behaviours of either resistance or support (Armenakis et al., 1993).

Literature reveals that many researchers have been examined predictor variables to know the employee attitudes and behaviours in the domain of change management. By getting 131 survey samples from a manufacturing company in the United States of America (USA), Hanpachern et al. found that margin in life and demographic variables of employees are related to readiness for change including job knowledge and skills, social relations in the workplace, organisational culture, and management leadership relationships have a significant impact on readiness to change. Cunningham et al. examined logistical and occupational risks of change, the ability to cope with change and to solve job related problems, social support; active vs. passive job constructs to influence readiness for change in healthcare organisations.

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