ONTOLOGY BASED E-LEARNING: XML AND XML SCHEMA

SCHEMA

XML is a language used to represent data in a structural way. It describes what is in the document, not what the documents looks like, while XML Schema provides grammars for legal XML documents

RDF AND RFS

RDF is a way for representing, exchanging and reusing of metadata. RDF uses URIs to identify web resources and uses a graph model for the purpose of describing the relationship between different resources.RDF schema is a simple modeling language introducing classes of resources, properties and relations between them.

ONTOLOGY

Ontology is considered the backbone for the semantic web architecture provides a machine-processable semantics and a sharable domain which can facilitate communication between people and different applications.

LOGIC

There is no specific definition for the Logic layer in the semantic web, not only the Logic layer, but for Trust and Proof layers. There are attempts to reach to their full meaning, status and functions of these layers, because Tim Berners Lee propositions and presentations did not describe these layers in details

ONTOLOGY OVERVIEW

Ontology is considered as back bone for the semantic web architecture provides a machine process able semantic and shareable domain which can facilitate communicate between people and different application.

Ontology technology is used describe the explicit concept of the data and information. Data is defined as sequence of symbols such as picture, figures, records and text. Information consists of a serial of data. It defined as abstraction about the certain subject and relationship through thoughts.

Recently ontology’s have been proposed as an enabling technology for the semantic web. On the semantic web, software agents would be able to deal with more complex queries, filtering and extracting meaning on behalf of the user, and returning a direct response. Some believe that such reasoning services will becomes so integrated into everyday life that they will be “necessary to us as access to electric power”
Fig2Ontology Based E-Learning_decrypted
Figure 2 : A simple Example for ontology

A small example for ontology is shown in figure in which it is specified not only that an author is a person and that a book is a publication, but also that an author writes a book that a book has chapters.

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

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