VIDEO SHOT BOUNDARY DETECTION(6)

Video programmes will have many different types of shot boundaries, and those where the shot boundary occurs over a number of frames may not be detected by the method above. For example, a fade or dissolve occurring over a 3 second period in, say, a cookery or gardening program will span a total of 75 frames and the incremental difference between adjacent frames in this sequence will be quite small. Furthermore, it is possible that the two separate shots in such a transition may have similar colouring and hence colour histograms, anyway. Such omissions are difficult to avoid using colour histogram based segmentation, but nevertheless this method is very popular and if used correctly it is very reliable and accurate. On the downside it is slow to compute because each frame of the digital video has to be decoded and calculations run on it to extract color values.

Video shot boundary detection using Edge Detection

This approach looks not at the colour differences, but at the differences between the edges detected in adjacent frames. Each frame in the digital video is turned into a greyscale image and Sobel filtering applied to detect edges. The method looks for similar edges in adjacent frames to detect a shot boundary. The principle behind the edge detection approach is that it can counter problems caused by fades and dissolves and other transitions which are invariant to gradual colour changes. With edge detection, even when there are gradual transitions between shots, there should always be a pair of adjacent frames where an edge is detected in one, and not in the other and identifying an occurrence of this on a large scale locates a shot transition. Like the colour-based method above, this will require a minimum difference between adjacent frames to detect a shot cut but it has the advantage of not being fooled by a large colour change for example when we get a camera flash. In such a case the colour-based methods will register a large difference in colour and as a result it will detect a shot boundary but the edge detection method will be looking for pixel edge differences. The downside of this technique is that it needs to decode each frame and as a result may compute slowly.

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

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