It should be noted that the protocol provisions for reuse of invalidated paths, When a node i has data to send, it looks up its route cache and chooses the route, if found, irrespective of whether the route was invalidated or not. Thus, we avoid redundant route discoveries in the presence of an existing route.

The invalidated cache is purged after a fixed time. The invalid entries are analogous to victim buffers in the cache structure of general-purpose processors.

However, the same does not hold good for relaying data. If a cache entry is invalidated in a node and that node is asked to relay data/reply to the destination of that cache entry, then the node will send a route error back to the source.


We used QualNet 5.0.2 for our simulations. The setup consisted of 10 nodes confined in an area of 1500 X 1500 m2 area and each node’s range was assumed to be 250m. All the nodes were connected to a wireless network which can be configured to the protocol of our choice. Initially we initialised each node with battery charged with 1200mAhr.

We ran the similar scenario in the simulator for both DSR and PAR. After simulating for 3000seconds we obtained energy model for both the protocol. Each energy model has two modes i.e. receive mode and transmit mode.

Representative APR 391%

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