Where P (i,i+1) denotes the power expended for transmitting (and receiving) between two consecutive nodes, i and i+1 in the route. For the first case, energy for each operation (receive, transmit, broadcast, discard, etc.) on a packet is given by, E (packet) = b* packet _ size + c Where b and c are the appropriate coefficients for each operation Power Aware Routing Protocol Cost Function

The objective of Power-aware Routing (PAR) is to extend the useful service life of a MANET. This is highly desirable in the network since death of certain nodes leads to a possibility of network partitions, rendering other live nodes unreachable. Power aware routing solves the problem of finding a route n at route discovery time t such that the following cost function is minimized:

Power Aware Routing_decrypted-1
Pi : transmit power of node i

Fi : full-charge battery capacity of node

Ri(t): remaining battery capacity at node i and at time t

a : positive weighing factor, a > 2

In DSR, because the route selection is done based on a shortest path finding algorithm (i.e., those with the minimum number of hops), only mobility of the nodes may cause a selected path to become invalid. In contrast, in PAR, both the node mobility and the node energy depletion may cause a path to become invalid. Since the route discovery and route maintenance in PAR are more complicated compared to their counterparts in DSR, these two steps will be described in detail. Also, since PAR is derived from DSR, the PAR description will often be contrasted with that of DSR.

Representative APR 391%

Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

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